The Problem

The Russian government maintains the most sophisticated censorship regime in the world. In addition to passing legislative restrictions on digital freedom of expression, the government actively blocks and filters information. Ultimately, digital censorship divides and shrinks the Russian Internet as a space in which to share and debate ideas independently of state influence. Absent freedom online to express, explore, and share divergent views on issues ranging across Russia’s political spectrum, citizens face a form of repression that undermines their ability to hold their representatives and government to account.

The Solution

Digital Public Square connected with over 50,000 Russian citizens in October and November 2015. We asked them to share their views, anonymously, several issues, including their beliefs about media, their confidence in various institutions, their political views, and their preferences for current media sources.


Stayed tuned to the Digital Public Square news feed for the results from the survey!


Anonymous participants
Surveys fully completed


Russia has a vibrant and active media. A substantial number of newspapers – both in print and online – are operational, as are a large number of radio and television outlets. An abundance of outlets, however, does not translate into a completely or even mostly free press. To the contrary, the majority of outlets are subject to some or complete state control. Where this is not the case, both draconian media laws and substantial harassment and threats of violence create incentives for self-censorship. Moreover, this restrictive environment is also spilling over onto the internet. As noted by Reporters Without Borders (among others), the list of banned websites is continually growing, and individuals often face sanction for the expression of their political views on social media websites.

Objective assessments of Russian news media suggest that it is mostly not free. According to the RWB’s 2016 World Press Freedom Index, Russia ranks 148th of 180 countries in press freedom. While its relative ranking improved in 2016 over 2015, its aggregate score of press freedoms declined over that period of time. This worsening performance, it should be noted, has increased in pace since the return of Putin in 2012.

On balance, Russians cannot easily, if at all, access a free and fair press.